hemopressin is a recently discovered endocannabinoid that acts as a CB1 inverse agonist (roughly meaning that it has the opposite action of THC at CB1 receptors). Most cannabinoid receptor ligands are lipids. However, hemopressin is the founding member of a new class of endocannabindoids: the peptide cannabinoids or PepCanns. As hemopressin actually has a higher affinity for CB1 than any other true cannabinoid, this justifies hemopressin being classified as an endocannabinoid. hemopressin strongly suppresses pain sensation and eating and may counteract de-myelination in diseases like multiple sclerosis and therefore has considerable therapeutic potential.
hemopressin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin, the protein that delivers oxygen throughout the body.
CB1, very high affinity antagonist. Binding reduces nociception/pain (Heimann et al., 2007; Toniolo et al., 2014) and food intake(Dodd et al., 2010). hemopressin stimulates oligodendrogenesis in the subventricular zone, presumably through CB1 binding (Xapelli et al., 2014). TRPV1, very high affinity agonist. Binding produces Anxiety (Fogaça et al., 2015). Literature: Dodd, G.T., Mancini, G., Lutz, B., and Luckman, S.M. (2010). The peptide hemopressin acts through CB1 cannabinoid receptors to reduce food intake in rats and mice. J. Neurosci. Off. J. Soc. Neurosci. 30, 7369–7376. Fogaça, M.V., Sonego, A.B., Rioli, V., Gozzo, F.C., Dale, C.S., Ferro, E.S., and Guimarães, F.S. (2015). Anxiogenic-like effects induced by hemopressin in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 129, 7–13. Heimann, A.S., Gomes, I., Dale, C.S., Pagano, R.L., Gupta, A., de Souza, L.L., Luchessi, A.D., Castro, L.M., Giorgi, R., Rioli, V., et al. (2007). hemopressin is an inverse agonist of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 20588–20593. Toniolo, E.F., Maique, E.T., Ferreira, W.A., Heimann, A.S., Ferro, E.S., Ramos-Ortolaza, D.L., Miller, L., Devi, L.A., and Dale, C.S. (2014). hemopressin, an inverse agonist of cannabinoid receptors, inhibits neuropathic pain in rats. Peptides 56, 125–131. Xapelli, S., Agasse, F., Grade, S., Bernardino, L., Ribeiro, F.F., Schitine, C.S., Heimann, A.S., Ferro, E.S., Sebastião, A.M., De Melo Reis, R.A., et al. (2014). Modulation of subventricular zone oligodendrogenesis: a role for hemopressin? Front. Cell. Neurosci. 8, 59.