TRPV1 is found in dorsal root ganglia, brain, kidney, pancreas, testes, uterus, spleen, stomach, small intestine, lung and liver.
In three different cancer cell lines (A549, H358 and H460) CBD dose dependently (1nM-3μM) increased ICAM-1 and TIMP-1 through TRPV1. In mice carrying human lung cancer xenografts, CBD increased ICAM-1 and TIMP-1 2.6-3.0-fold, inhibiting lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis (Ramer et al., 2012)
Functional Gastro-intestinal disorders
In an experimental mouse model of Eczema endocannabinoids AEA and PEA were increased and TRPV1 and PPARα were upregulated (Petrosino et al., 2010). PEA enhances AEA activity at CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors and protects against keratinocyte inflammation in a TRPV1-, but not CB1, CB2 or PPARα-dependent way.
In mice, stimulating CB1 receptors (ACEA) or blocking TRPV1 receptors (capsazepine) protected against PTZ-induced seizures (Naderi et al., 2015). Interestingly, co-administration of both compounds attenuated the anti-convulsive effect, suggesting an interaction between CB1 and TRPV1 mediated signaling.
TRPV1 has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. Interestingly, blocking TRPV1 function has no effect but stimulating these receptors offers pain relief; in fact transient activation is followed by prolonged de-sensitization and thus effective pain relief. TRPV1-mediated antinociception is thought to work in synergy with CB1-mediated neuronal inhibition in pain management (Hoffmann et al., 2012).
TRP receptors (TRPV1-4, TRPA1, TRPM8) are classically known for their role in pain sensation. TRPs bind to most plant cannabinoids and endocannabinoids with varying affinities (De Petrocellis et al., 2011, 2012), tentatively making TRPs excellent targets and plant cannabinoids excellent substrates for pain management.
In one study, Anandamide was found to reduce dopamine release via TRPV1 receptors (de Lago et al., 2004) suggesting their involvement in movement behaviour. In another study, OEA reduced L-dopa-induced-dyskinesia in a TRPV1-dependent way (González-Aparicio and Moratalla, 2014).
CBD and CBG do not function through classical CB receptors and none of the phytocannabinoids depended on TRPV1 for their effect (in contrast to endocannabinoid function below), but PPARγ and GPR55 may be involved in the effect of cannainoids in Psoriasis (Wilkinson and Williamson, 2007).
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