GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds with G protein G13. GPR55 stimulates RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1 upon activation, suggesting a role in cell division and growth.
GPR55 is widely expressed in brain with particularly high expression in the cerebellum. GPR55 is also found in jejunum and ileum in the intestine and osteoblasts/osteoclasts in bone marrow.
In a rat model of autism (Valproic Acid model), GPR55, PPARα and PPARγ were reduced in several brain regions involved in higher cognitive functions (frontal cortex and hippocampus) (Kerr et al., 2013).
The specific cannabinoid receptors CB2 and GPR55 are overexpressed in glioblastomas compared to non-cancer glial cells. This overexpression is also related to the prognosis of the disease, with higher overexpression of CB2 in the most aggressive tumors (Calatozzolo et al., 2007; Ellert-Miklaszewska et al., 2007; Sánchez et al., 2001).
Functional gastrointestinal inflammation
A study in mice showed that GPR55 is involved in neurogenic gut contractions (Ross et al., 2012)
CBD and CBG do not function through classical CB receptors and none of the phytocannabinoids depended on TRPV1 for their effect (in contrast to endocannabinoid function below), but PPARγ and GPR55 may be involved in the effect of cannainoids in Psoriasis (Wilkinson and Williamson, 2007).
Bakali, E., Elliott, R.A., Taylor, A.H., Lambert, D.G., Willets, J.M., and Tincello, D.G. (2014).Human urothelial cell lines as potential models for studying cannabinoid and excitatory receptor interactions in the urinary bladder. Naunyn. Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 387, 581–589.
Calatozzolo, C., Salmaggi, A., Pollo, B., Sciacca, F.L., Lorenzetti, M., Franzini, A., Boiardi, A., Broggi, G., and Marras, C. (2007). Expression of cannabinoid receptors and neurotrophins in human gliomas. Neurol. Sci. Off. J. Ital. Neurol. Soc. Ital. Soc. Clin. Neurophysiol. 28, 304–310.
Deliu, E., Sperow, M., Console-Bram, L., Carter, R.L., Tilley, D.G., Kalamarides, D.J., Kirby, L.G., Brailoiu, G.C., Brailoiu, E., Benamar, K., et al. (2015). The Lysophosphatidylinositol Receptor GPR55 Modulates pain Perception in the Periaqueduactal Grey. Mol. Pharmacol.
Ellert-Miklaszewska, A., Grajkowska, W., Gabrusiewicz, K., Kaminska, B., and Konarska, L. (2007). Distinctive pattern of cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) expression in adult and pediatric brain tumors. Brain Res. 1137, 161–169.
Jenkin, K.A., McAinch, A.J., Zhang, Y., Kelly, D.J., and Hryciw, D.H. (2014). Elevated CB1 and GPR55 receptor expression in proximal tubule cells and whole kidney exposed to diabetic conditions. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
Jourdan, T., Szanda, G., Rosenberg, A.Z., Tam, J., Earley, B.J., Godlewski, G., Cinar, R., Liu, Z., Liu, J., Ju, C., et al. (2014). Overactive cannabinoid 1 receptor in podocytes drives type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111, E5420–E5428.
Sánchez, C., de Ceballos, M.L., Gomez del Pulgar, T., Rueda, D., Corbacho, C., Velasco, G., Galve-Roperh, I., Huffman, J.W., Ramón y Cajal, S., and Guzmán, M. (2001). Inhibition of glioma growth in vivo by selective activation of the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor. cancer Res. 61, 5784–5789.
Troy-Fioramonti, S., Demizieux, L., Gresti, J., Muller, T., Vergès, B., and Degrace, P. (2014). Acute Activation of cannabinoid Receptors by Anandamide Reduces Gastro-Intestinal Motility and Improves Postprandial Glycemia in Mice. Diabetes.
Wilkinson, J.D., and Williamson, E.M. (2007). cannabinoids inhibit human keratinocyte proliferation through a non-CB1/CB2 mechanism and have a potential therapeutic value in the treatment of Psoriasis. J. Dermatol. Sci. 45, 87–92.